From the botanical science point of view, the flora of Mt Pelion has not been studied systematically as a whole. A composition of the hitherto known elements raises the variety of the flora up to 620 species and subspecies, a number that demonstrates the relevance of the area with the wider biogeographical unit. Obviously, the lack of large limestone formations and the absence of the upper elevation zone, which contributes to the biodiversity of the large mountain ranges, explain this modest number.

For the hiker point of view, however, the explosive Spring of Mt Pelion offers a unique opportunity to get acquainted with the flora of the Mediterranean zone. Phryganic ecosystems and extensive shrubs hide an impressive variety of orchids, while across the stony slopes, on the coastal rocks and numerous precipices of Southern Pelion the hiler will spot many bulbous species.

Autumn is usually mild and gives the yellow lilies the opportunity to decorate the streets and the old estates. In the meadows and stone slopes, autumn looks like a second Spring, as it unfolds cyclamen (Cyclamen graecum) and autumn crocuses and colchicums, such as the striking Colchicum bivonae.

Regarding the species with limited geographical distribution or otherwise endemic species, Pelion hosts just one local endemic subspecies, Soldanella chrysosticta subsp. pelia, a plant hard to see and rare, with beautiful purple flowers that appears near permanently damp locations in the shady beech forests.
In addition, in Pelion, from the data known to date, there are 23 Greek endemics, 26 Balkan endemics and 29 sub-Balkan endemics (ie species and subspecies that occur in the Balkans and in another neighboring region).

# Species Region
1 Alkanna graeca ssp. baeotica Rocky slopes and rocks, subalpine meadows. From 1100m to 1600m
2 Berberis cretica Rocky soils. From 800 to 1500 m.
3 Campanula incurva Limestone slopes and rocks. From 0 to 1000 m.
4 Centaurea pelia Forest clearings, shrubs. From 300 to 1400 m.
5 Cerastium candidissimum Stone slopes and rocks. From 700 to 1600 m.
6 Chondrilla ramosissima Low-altitude rock slopes, desert fields, phrygana
7 Crepis hellenica Old fields, dry meadows. Up to 700 m.
8 Cyclamen graecum Limestone slopes, rocks. From 0 to 1300 m.
9 Dianthus haemetocalyx ssp. pruinosus Stone slopes, rocky phrygana
10 Dianthus corymbosus Stony phrygana. From 100 to 900 m.
11 Ebenus sibthorpii Stone slopes, limestone peaks. From 300 to 1100 m.
12 Erysimum microstylum Stone slopes, limestone rocks, phrygana. From 600 to 1300 m.
13 Euphorbia deflexa Stone slopes, dry meadows. From 100 to 1300 m.
14 Malcolmia graeca ssp. hydraea Rock slopes, rocks. From 0 to 800 m.
15 Nigella arvensis ssp. aristata Low-altitude rocky slopes, deserted fields, phrygana
16 Odontites linkii Stone slopes, road slopes. From 300 to 1500 m.
17 Petrorhagia armerioides Stone slopes, abandoned fields, phrygana. From 100 to 1300 m.
18 Pterocephalus perennis ssp. perennis Stone slopes, rocks. From 400 to 1500 m.
19 Scorzonera crocifolia Stone slopes, abandoned fields, old olive groves. Up to 800 m.
20 Silene linoides Limestone rocks, Gorges
21 Soldanella chrysosticta subsp. pelia Wet places in forests. From 1100 to 1250 m.
22 Verbascum mallophorum Petrolivada, forest clearings. From 500 to 1600 m.
23 Veronica chamaedrys ssp. chamaedryoides Shrubs, rocky slopes, meadows. From 600 to 1100 m.

Coastal plants of Pelion area

Among the most characteristic plants of the coastal zone, the Rock samphire (Crithmum maritimum) is very common on both the rocky and sandy shores of Pelion. It is a perennial plant with numerous shoots and fleshy leaves, which are collected and consumed boiled or raw.
Caper (Capparis spinosa) is another typical rock-living coastal species, abundant in rocks near or above the sea. Its buds, before the full development of the flower, are collected and used as ornaments in the Medeterranean cuisine.

Alien plants in Pelion

In his long historical course, man has affected the distribution of many plant species, sometimes on purpose and sometimes unintentionally. The first case refers to species used as food, for the production of cloth, species with medicinal, aromatic or ornamental value, just to mention only some of the uses that man has for plants. In the second case, many species have expanded their area of distribution without the will of man, like for instance in the case of weeds, that were indeliberately imported as seeds with food or inside other packages and colonized new areas. In many cases, both the first and the second, they established viable populations, where they found favorable conditions and are now part of the physiognomy of their new biotopes.

Among the most wide spread alien species, the sentry plant (Agave americana) is the most impressive. Its natural area of distribution is in Mexico and southern US states. It produces a large rosette with large, succulent, spiny leaves with a green-glaucous color. It is a {b}monocarpic{/b} species, flowering only once in its lifetime and then dying, but only after it has produced an impressive inflorescence, the axis of which reaches up to 9 m in height. Attached to it are the numerous yellow flowers.

The Barbary fig (Opuntia ficus-indica) is widespresd in Southern Pelion. Its is a low, mutli-stemmed cactus with leaves transformed into spines and succulent, green stems that have undertaken the role of photosynthesis. On top of them, numerous yellow flowers develop, which turn into tasty prickly pears. It spreads in rocky places and barren fields in all coastal areas of the continental country and in most islands.